Disturbing the Universe

David L Clements, science and science fiction


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Infrared Astronomy Linkfest!

As the publication date for my Infrared Astronomy book gets ever closer (I am told it was sent to the printers this week) I’ve made some major updates to the webpage accompanying the book, which can be found here.

And if you have any links relevant to infrared astronomy that you think should be added, please list them in the replies to this post. Thanks!

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Astronomer Royal Coming to Worldcon

I’m the organiser of the science programme at the 2014 World SF Convention, taking place in London from 14-18 August, 2014. We have a press release:

MEDIA RELEASE #20

Loncon 3, the 72nd World Science Fiction Convention

14-18 August 2014 at ExCeL London

http://www.loncon3.org

media@loncon3.org

Science stars to shine at London World Science Fiction Convention

London, 8 May 2014 – Some of the biggest names in science, including the Astronomer Royal, have been confirmed to appear at Loncon 3, the 72nd World Science Fiction Convention (“Worldcon”), which opens at ExCeL London on 14 August 2014.

The extensive Loncon 3 science programme aims to take Worldcon attendees from the farthest and earliest reaches of the universe to the depths of the human cell, from subatomic particles to the theory and practice of geoengineering, from ancient Greek technology to the engineering practicalities behind low cost space flight.

Well-known names booked to deliver specialist talks and appear on panels at the convention include:

  • Baron Rees of Ludlow, a cosmologist and astrophysicist based at the Institute of Astronomy in Cambridge. He has been Astronomer Royal since 1995 and was President of the Royal Society between 2005 and 2010. Lord Rees will deliver the George Hay memorial lecture sponsored by the Science Fiction Foundation, a charity which promotes science fiction and its relationship with science.
  • Dr. Tori Herridge, a paleobiologist at the Natural History Museum who delivered the 2012 Charles Lyell Award lecture at the British Science Festival and co-wrote Who Do You Think You Really Are.
  • Dr. Jenny Rohn, a cell biologist at University College London, who is the editor of the webzine LabLit.com and founder of the Science is Vital organization.
  • Prof. Ian Stewart, professor of mathematics at the University of Warwick and an author of popular science and science fiction books. He has been awarded the Christopher Zeeman Medal and the Michael Faraday Medal.
  • Prof. David Southwood, president of the Royal Astronomical Society, Senior Research Investigator at Imperial College London, and former Director of Science and Robotic Exploration at the European Space Agency.

As well as the science programme, attractions at Loncon 3 include the presentation of the Hugo Awards, the world’s leading awards for excellence in the field of science fiction and fantasy, and the Masquerade, live presentations showcasing spectacular costumes. The programme will present nearly a thousand individual items spread over five days, with panels, talks, workshops, quizzes, films, videos, autograph sessions, and more.

Full details of how to become a member of Loncon 3 are available at http://www.loncon3.org/memberships/

ENDS

For more information please contact media@loncon3.org

ABOUT THE WORLD SCIENCE FICTION CONVENTION

Founded in 1939, the World Science Fiction Convention is one of the largest international gatherings of authors, artists, editors, publishers, and fans of science fiction and fantasy. The annual Hugo Awards, the leading award for excellence in the fields of science fiction and fantasy, are voted on by the Worldcon membership and presented during the convention.

Loncon 3 is the trading name of London 2014 Ltd, a company limited by guarantee, registered in England, company number: 7989510. Registered Office: 176 Portland Road, Jesmond, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE2 1DJ, UK.

“World Science Fiction Society”, “WSFS”, “World Science Fiction Convention”, “Worldcon”, “NASFiC”, “Hugo Award”, the Hugo Award Logo, and the distinctive design of the Hugo Award Trophy Rocket are service marks of the World Science Fiction Society, an unincorporated literary society.


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Is Gravity Science Fiction?

I just wrote the following response to an article and blog comment on lablit.com suggesting that the film Gravity should not be classified as Science Fiction. I thought I should add the comment here as well.

What’s the beef with science fiction?

There are several issues with Gravity that to my mind make it more Science Fiction than Science Fact. The convenient locations of the various places on orbit is already noted, but there are other operational issues in Gravity which elide the facts to make it more convenient (and survivable) for the characters. These include the amount of time taken to put on (and take off) a space suit, and the amount of time it takes to repressurise an airlock.

But above and beyond all these, is the key science fictional idea that drives the film: Kessler syndrome, the hypthesised debris cascade that would result as space debris hits other satellites causing even more debris, and eventually wiping out everything in low Earth orbit (LEO). Even ignoring the fact that the data linking satellites, TDRS, that are used to link communications across LEO are in geosynchronous orbit (GEO) and thus immune from the effect – something the film ignores to add narrative tension – the Kessler syndrome is not something that has been probed to be real. It’s plausible, but it is not a scientific fact, confirmed (thank goodness) by experiment.

To my mind that makes Gravity science fiction more than anything else. Hard SF, for sure, since they try as hard as possible to get everything else as right as they can given the story they want to tell, but SF nevertheless.

I’d contrast this with another film that is borderline SF: Deep Impact. This posits the possibility of a large asteroid impact threatening all life on Earth. Most people would call this film SF, but, unlike Gravity and the Kessler Syndrome, we know that such giant impacts have happened in the past – one wiped out the dinosaurs.

Would you classify that as SF, like most people, or as something different?

I think what lablit.com does is great, and have a couple of things published there, but the site is oddly allergic to science fiction, trying to distance itself from something they have, to my mind, more in common with than differences.


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Cambridge Science Festival: Science as the Spark

I’ll be on a panel at the Cambridge Science Festival this Thursday:

Science as the Spark – literature inspired by science

How has scientific inquiry lead to literary works? Why is the literary presentation of science relevant to scientists and to society?

This panel, chaired by Dr John Holmes, will skirt the cliches to ask illuminating questions, investigating why a number of talented scientists, historians and artists structure their work at the intersection of these worlds.

Panel members:

Chris Beckett, novelist and short story writer, 2013 Arthur C. Clarke best novel award for Dark Eden, Edge Hill award for The Turing Test.

Dave Clements, novelist and short story writer, 2013 Sir Arthur Clarke award, astrophysicist at Imperial.

Laura Dietz, novelist, convenor of the MA in Creative Writing at Anglia Ruskin.

Kelley Swain. poet and novelist, lecturer in Humanities in Global Health for Imperial?s Global Health BSc, past Writer in Residence at the Whipple Museum of the History of Science.

Thursday 20 March, 7pm-8.30pm, Anglia Ruskin University, East Road, CB1 1PT – Lord Ashcroft Building, LAB005

It’s free, but seats are going quickly, so book now!


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Me and Jonathan Ross

A week ago I was involved with what has been called a twitterstorm concerning the appointment of the UK media personality Jonathan Ross as tosatmaster – ie. master of ceremonies – for the Hugo Awards at the 2014 World SF Convention taking place in London in August this year. A lot was said both for and against him as toastmaster, and for and against the process that led to him being asked. After a rather fraught day (and longer for members of the convention committee – I am not one), Jonathan Ross stood down.

I am not going to rehearse most of the arguments for and against him, and I am certainly not going to delve into the ad hominem and, at times, hurtful comments made by both sides. That has been discussed far too much already. But, in thinking about this paroxysm, and about some of the reasons advanced for and against, I’ve come to realise that I’m viewing SF and fannish activities rather differently to some people in the publishing industry and elsewhere.

Specifically, a number of writers and publishers, including Sarah Pinborough and Danie Ware, saw Ross’ withdrawal as a missed  opportunity for ‘a huge boost for the whole community in terms of publicity and credibility, reputation and sales’. Oddly, except perhaps for the sales side in the short term, I think Ross would have represented a step backwards in all of those areas.

What are Danie, Sarah and others seeing in Ross as being a boost for SF? Ignoring the specific arguments for and against Ross as an individual, he is a major UK celebrity (though largely unknown outside the country). Having such a celebrity handing out the Hugos might have drawn in the press, which would have led to greater visibility, credibility in mainstream media circles and, maybe, increased sales.

But what kind of celebrity is Jonathan Ross? He’s a media figure, famous, at some level, for being famous. He is a product of UK celebrity culture which, at its root, is interested in fame only, not content. Yes, Ross is a comics writer and his wife is a Hugo winning scriptwriter, but neither of those are what will come to the mind of the press when they think of him. He would just be another celebrity adding media glitz.

The thing is, I think SF is far more than just another media phenomenon, and that measuring success in terms of media credibility and short term sales figures is, frankly, missing the whole point.

Science Fiction is different. It is not like other fictional genres, such as crime, fantasy and genre literature. It can have similarities to them, and has to play by similar rules if it is to tell workable and saleable stories. But it also has other concerns. At its best, SF not only tells stories about engaging and realistic characters, it also builds new worlds for those characters to live in, and poses realistic challenges about the future of the reader (or viewer of a movie etc.). This is not universal in SF, and this is not unique to SF – there are works in other genres that can do the same thing (though I would classify many of these, such as 1984 and The Handmaids Tale, as works of science fiction even if the authors might not have done that at the time of writing).

This gives SF a more important role than it being a simple media classification, as something where a short term sales boost at the cost of portraying it as just another celebrity-obsessed community, might actually bring long term damage.

This is why I spend much of my time working to build and promote the science programme at SF conventions. SF at its best goes beyond the world, beyond the simple medium and its content, and offers glimpses at other possibilities, at how science works and what its results are, at the threats and potentials of the future and in the world around us. Jonathan Ross has nothing whatsoever to do with any of that, and yet that is what I see as being the core of what SF is, and what SF does. The Hugo toastmaster should be part of that, someone who represents that broader context. It shouldn’t just be another media figure promoting just another media bunfight.

The credibility I seek for SF is not among arts correspondents on newspapers and TV, the kind of people Jonathan Ross would pull in. Thanks to the persistent gulf between the Two Cultures in much of the UK, these are issues they will not examine and cannot, in the short term at least, understand. Indeed, they might misunderstand SF and the Hugos completely, accidentally or otherwise.

A different kind of credibility is needed, one that goes beyond the usual silos of the media business because SF goes beyond those silos, allowing us to imagine different futures and, on that basis, change the present. This is why organisations like the Global Business Network hire SF writers to build ‘what if’ scenarios for the future, that help solve real problems today. One of GBNs greatest successes was the peaceful end of apartheid in South Africa (and discussed in Wired many years ago).

What other kind of fiction can do that?

And if the public face of that fiction just another media celebrity, will the chances of SF doing that again be increased or decreased? I think the latter is far more likely.

That is why, even without the reputational baggage that follows Jonathan Ross around, deservedly or otherwise, I think he was a very poor choice as Hugo toastmaster.


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Astronomy Valentines

There was a meme going round twitter yesterday for scientist valentines. I ended up committing a couple which seemed to go down quite well, so I thought I would inflict them on you via my blog, just in case you missed them. You have been warned:

R band is red,
B band is blue,
I can’t see I,
and neither can you.

And:

I band is red,
J band is redder,
If you think K comes next
You’re not an infrared astronomer
Both are inspired by astronomical filter systems and, in the latter case, the difficulty with the alphabet that my colleagues in infrared astronomy seem to have.
Of course someone has since claimed to be able to see in the I band, but there are mutants everywhere.


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Press Release: Four new galaxy clusters take researchers further back in time

I have a press release out today! Below is the text from the release from Imperial. So far it seems to have been picked up by:

The Daily Mail

The Financial Express

The Economic Times

Phys.Org

scientias.nl (in Dutch)

and there may be more to come.

Not sure what to think about the Daily Mail entry – it’s not my favourite paper, but, as a colleague said, ‘if your piece is next to “Lauren Goodger shows off the results of her new boob job in unflattering sheer dress at charity event” and “What happened to natural beauty, Kim? Kardashian overdoes her look with thick, heavy make-up arriving at Khloe’s house” you’re certainly reaching new audiences.’

News: science

Imperial College London

Four new galaxy clusters take researchers further back in time

by Gail Wilson12 February 2014

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Four unknown galaxy clusters each potentially containing thousands of individual galaxies have been discovered some 10 billion light years from Earth.

An international team of astronomers, led by Imperial College London, used a new way of combining data from the two European Space Agency satellites, Planck and Herschel, to identify more distant galaxy clusters than has previously been possible. The researchers believe up to 2000 further clusters could be identified using this technique, helping to build a more detailed timeline of how clusters are formed.

– Dr Dave Clements

Study author

Galaxy clusters are the most massive objects in the universe, containing hundreds to thousands of galaxies, bound together by gravity. While astronomers have identified many nearby clusters, they need to go further back in time to understand how these structures are formed. This means finding clusters at greater distances from the Earth.

The light from the most distant of the four new clusters identified by the team has taken over 10 billion years to reach us. This means the researchers are seeing what the cluster looked like when the universe was just three billion years old.

Lead researcher Dr David Clements, from the Department of Physics at Imperial College London, explains: “Although we’re able to see individual galaxies that go further back in time, up to now, the most distant clusters found by astronomers date back to when the universe was 4.5 billion years old. This equates to around nine billion light years away. Our new approach has already found a cluster in existence much earlier than that, and we believe it has the potential to go even further.”

The clusters can be identified at such distances because they contain galaxies in which huge amounts of dust and gas are being formed into stars. This process emits light that can be picked up by the satellite surveys.

Galaxies are divided into two types: elliptical galaxies that have many stars, but little dust and gas; and spiral galaxies like our own, the Milky Way, which contain lots of dust and gas. Most clusters in the universe today are dominated by giant elliptical galaxies in which the dust and gas has already been formed into stars.

“What we believe we are seeing in these distant clusters are giant elliptical galaxies in the process of being formed,” says Dr Clements.

Observations were recorded by the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) instrument as part of Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES). Seb Oliver, Head of the HerMES survey said: “The fantastic thing about Herschel-SPIRE is that we are able to scan very large areas of the sky with sufficient sensitivity and image sharpness that we can find these rare and exotic things.  This result from Dr. Clements is exactly the kind of thing we were hoping to find with the HerMES survey”

The researchers are among the first to combine data from two satellites that ended their operations last year: the Planck satellite, which scanned the whole sky, and the Herschel satellite, which surveyed certain sections in greater detail. The researchers used Planck data to find sources of far-infrared emission in areas covered by the Herschel satellite, then cross referenced with Herschel data to look at these sources more closely. Of sixteen sources identified by the researchers, most were confirmed as single, nearby galaxies that were already known. However, four were shown by Herschel to be formed of multiple, fainter sources, indicating previously unknown galaxy clusters.

The team then used additional existing data and new observations to estimate the distance of these clusters from Earth and to determine which of the galaxies within them were forming stars. The researchers are now looking to identify more galaxy clusters using this technique, with the aim of looking further back in time to the earliest stage of cluster formation.

The research involved scientists from the UK, Spain, USA, Canada, Italy and South Africa. It is published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.